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Alphabetical Index

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Z
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Voir Dire

A preliminary examination of a witness or venireman to ascertain whether he is competent.

Writ

A command or a precept from the sovereign. Also, a document issued out of a court, commanding the person to whom it is addressed to do or forbear from doing some act. Writs are of two kinds, prerogative and of right. For prerogative writs see Certiorari, Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition. A writ of right lay at common law for the recovery of lands in fee simple unjustly withheld from the owner. A judicial writ is one issued by a court under its own seal, by which civil proceedings are commenced. They may also be interlocutory, such as a writ of attachment or sequestration. It may also be a writ of execution of the judgment obtained in an action.

Witness

One whose statements and declarations under oath are received as evidence for some purpose, whether such statements or declarations are made on oral examination or by deposition or affidavit. Also one who subscribes in attestation of a document.

Warrant

A judicial writ or order authorizing arrest, search, seizure, or any other designated act in aid of the administration of justice. It is the authority under which the person to whom it is directed acts. The term also denotes the command of an official of municipal corporation whose duty it is to pass upon the validity and determine the amount or claims of public creditors in order that the same may be paid. Such a warrant perse creates no debt and is not a contract but merely a licence authorizing the reasurer to pay money. See Fletcher v Renfroe, 56 Ga. 674. Such a warrant is not a negotiable instrument. See School Dist. 47 Joint v United States National Bank, 187 Or. 360, 211 P.2d.723. As a verb, the term means to guaranty, as where a vendor warrants the title to property sold.

Unified Court System

Unified Court System in the law of the United States

Unified Court System: Related U.S. Resources

Venire

(Lat. to come). The name of a writ (more commonly called venire facias) by which a jury is summoned.

Verdict

The formal declaration of a jury given after the trial of a cause, as reported by the jury to the court on the question of fact submitted to it for decision. A verdict may be either general or special. It is general where the jury gives a finding on the case generally as when it finds for the plaintiff or for the defendant or finds the accused guilty or not guilty. It may be special as where certain questions are put to the jury by the judge for its answers, so that the judge can dispose of the case by applying the law to the findings. In a criminal sense, a jury has the right to return a verdict of guilty in relation to a lesser offense where a greater offence is charged; as where a man is charged with murder but the jury is satisfied only that he committed manslaughter. Where, however, a greater crime is disclosed than that which is charged, the jury cannot return a verdict of guilty for the greater crime.

Venue

The county, the city or the town where an action or presecution is brought for trial. Originally, the term indicated only the locality of the crime, that is, where the crime took place but in practice, it has come to indicate to signify the locality of the trial. The venue of a trial may be changed for various reasons, such as the convenience of all parties or for any other reason to ensure a fair trial. It is primarily a matter of convenience of litigants and witnesses. See Denver and R. G. W.R. Co. v Brotherhood of R. Trainmen, 387 U.S. 556, 87S. Ct.1746, 18 L.Ed.2d.954.

Vacate

As applied to statutes, orders, etc., to cancel or annul. As applied to a place, means to make vacant.

Three-Judge District Court

Three-Judge District Court in the law of the United States

Three-Judge District Court: Related U.S. Resources